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This official product is published by Raspberry Pi (Trading) Ltd., Mount Pleasant House, . Download BBC TV shows .. complete with the Kodi. The robotic cat has had a complete design . Both images are available for download from . it difficult for ecologists to perform manual field. First published in by Raspberry Pi Trading Ltd, Station Road, Cambridge, CB1 2JH .. icons – you can also download and install other operating systems.
You will be Then fill in your Wi-Fi details: If you session on your Pi. Then finally: There is no audio support. Set up your Pi Zero Getting started Raspbian user interface from the previous step. The largest partition will be the root -p22 -sV You can find it with the ip addr command. Debian is a key part of the Linux ecosystem.
One of the most popular of these is Raspbian. The original Debian was released in While one of the primary goals of the Pi Pi is called Raspbian. Card speed It's a good idea to get a reasonably fast SD card to keep your system running Command line smoothly. As the Raspberry Pi is essentially a mini PC. Raspbian needed work to get performance levels up to standard.
There are a wealth of fully ledged operating systems. Install a distro Getting started Formatting the card 05 In Windows. This can be done in Windows by right to use the FAT32 file system. It www. In OS X. Simply copying the file to the SD card with one in some form or other. When the installation is complete you can put the SD card in your Pi. The irst step here is to not panic: Quick and painless in this case. Simply You start the operating system and… you end up at a command use the Up and Down arrows to use them.
Raspbian will load up the desktop and you can start using the mouse again. It may just be a bit of a foreign concept to you. The second step. Fig 1: The terminal emulator allows you to access the command line while still being in the desktop environment The X server handles the graphical interface and can be turned of by default on some Pi systems.
Command line basics Getting started Fig 2: From here you can enable the desktop on boot Fig 3. This allows you to modify Raspbian without having to reinstall again. Change the default selection to software either. Very much so.
This creates a window where a command can be written in the same way that we launched the desktop. On Raspbian.
This is a program that allows you to browse the available software for the operating system. For starters. In the terminal. Just start followed by the name of the package. The irst command. If you like what you see hit Enter to inish! You can do that with the command: You can use the Tab to To install software you use install instead of update or upgrade.
Getting started Command line basics Fig 4: Upgrade your system and files. There are many simple command-line tools that can help you you work like a street-wise movie hacker.
When you irst open the terminal. As we were starting of in the home folder to begin with. This can be done like so: Individual iles can be copied using the command cp.
Command line basics Getting started Move and create Installing and updating are just a couple of the many things you can Did you know… do in the command line. Use cd to move to the directory you need to add a folder to. You can also browse the entire ile system. To navigate. Try the cd command again.
As you use Linux more and more. You can always return to your move iles. To the right of this are shortcuts to the Epiphany browser.
Programs downloaded from the Pi Store will appear in the appropriate category. LXTerminal for inputting text-based commands. File manager No computer would be complete without a file manager. Task Bar Stripped across the top of the screen is the Task Bar. Games Minecraft Pi is pre-installed. You can also create tabbed windows in the file browser or open further ones. Accessories an assortment of utilities. Use Shutdown to switch off.
Folder locations can be bookmarked for easy access and files themselves can be viewed as icons or in a detailed list. Internet browser and online resources. Next to these shortcuts. Files can be copied. Click on the Options icon at the end of the tool bar to access these functions. Empathy supports multiple tabbed windows and features private browsing and the ability to clear browsing data. As with any browser. To the left of some of those can only be launched from here. In the corner is the clock.
Much like Steam. Using the wrong overclock your Pi to give you some extra one can be annoying speed and power with little risk with caution! The Raspi Conig tool takes the pain out of the process and puts real power at your ingertips. Some of the Configure your keyboard Overclocking settings in this menu are important Set the correct keyboard up — there are Allows you to quickly and easily and some are irreversible.
There are some further speciics for the Pi and Raspbian itself. This will start the command prompt. If you then want to run a window Remember. Overclock your Pi — before you start changing any system settings. Upon using this option. Set this your Pi. If you have the former issue. Always try to make sure Because of this. If you have the latter issue.
Use the have 3D effects enabled. Setting the clock speed and voltage at higher rates than the specification may cause 06 By default. Reboot your system to see side effects. This is generally to either add more Timezone will take you to a tzdata extensive multimedia or play 3D features or fix small bugs. Here are our recommendations: The operating can take some time.
It will process this. Click on Scan to look for networks and a list of those found should appear Fig 1. The red power light should be on. Almost all home networks use a network key. Turn your Pi on and launch the desktop. Below the power light are the three Ethernet- related lights. This means it is able to send and receive data to the internet.
Then double-click on the Wi-Fi Conig icon. You can then plug a Wi-Fi dongle into this. You should see a name for the dongle in the Adapter section. This plugs into a USB port on the Fig 1: With a Wi-Fi dongle attached. Click on PSK. Above this is the green light that lickers when accessing the SD card.
Step 1: Requirements
Then Fig 2: Enter the pre-shared key in order to connect to your home router click on Add. Double-click on the one you want to connect to and the details for it will be listed. The last light is yellow and will come on and stay on when a Mb LAN connection is detected. The next light is green and lashes when actually accessing the internet by sending or receiving data.
Boot up the Pi and launch the desktop. Launch System Preferences. To get on the internet. If you click on the Manage Networks tab. Use the web interface with another device to log onto If you right-click on the Wi-Fi icon you will see options to Disconnect or Reconnect. The Wi-Fi utility will remain running on the bottom right of the panel. On a Windows PC. Get your Pi online Getting started then inally. Typically this is something like On a Mac. Checking the connection To check that the Pi has a valid internet connection.
Enter this command: Both Windows and Mac computers can share their internet connections with a to it. Click on Internet Sharing. These programs. They then put it out to the world and make the source code freely available. These remote servers. In Linux.
It Did you know… already contains a wealth of educational software. By installing more programs. Once the program has been tested. If you press the Tab key the some programming utilities and a number of system tools. Angry Drunken Dwarves. Enter the following into Angry Drunken Dwarves.
In the list. To execute the newly installed package. Apt really is. Using the Apt command again. This terminal. But before we do that. In the previous instance. There Remove a package are many different sub-commands that you can run. Purely for a little bit of fun. Executing the package upgraded any that needed it. If you find something you like the look of. The apt-get Synaptic has access to the command is used for installing applications through the internet.
If so. But it is used through the terminal command prompt. With it you can install. This is where Synaptic comes in. Upgrade entire systems Synaptic has the ability to update and upgrade every program or package.
Think of it as a kind of online shop where you can pick and choose the programs you want and have them downloaded and installed onto your Raspberry Pi without you having to drop into the terminal. Click on the icon in the bottom command is again used instead of left. Now we need to menu. Before we install anything. From the Package Manager. Use graphical installations Getting started Update the system the menu and left-click Properties. Fixing Synaptic — and then press Enter a couple of times to get back to the command Option 1 prompt.
What is a Raspberry Pi?
To test if Synaptic is working okay. You can now launch Synaptic from the menu. So 01 Unfortunately. In the Command text box. Synaptic is now installed and ready to use. Simply enter the following into the LXTerminal: Enter the following password into the box: Synaptic fully working forget to type Y to any prompts asking raspberry you to accept the installation: Since Python is the oicial language of the Raspberry Pi.
It helps to have a basic understanding of Python if you plan to use RPi. The project is hosted on SourceForge and can be found at sourceforge. Without them you have no way of interfacing with the real world. There are a few pins that The library is called RPi. You can use them from the terminal directly and through Bash scripts. The RPi. GPIO port explained Getting started have special purposes. Below Become familiar with the layout of the GPIO pins and what they do — some have special purposes.
The pin-naming convention you use in your Python scripts can be set manually. Others also have special capabilities. BCM really useful documentation. With some provided sample scripts you can make sure your Pi is correctly shut down when you switch of — without the need to open any menus or issue any commands in the terminal — and the circuitry in the switch ensures that power is only removed after the Pi has been shut down.
It packs a lot of punch for the price point and. The Pi Supply Switch is a self-solder kit which provides an on. This opens it up to a world of possibilities. Portable computer. When comparing it to your more standard desktop or laptop computer. It is surprising how something as simple as a power switch can be so very useful.
As well as making it more convenient for you. It has hardware volume control using Alsamixer. This is where the Energenie Pi-mote control starter kit comes in. The good news is that the clever folk at the Raspberry Pi Foundation have provided access to the I2S pins. Internet-connected solution. It contains two remote-controlled plug sockets which can be turned on and of with an RF remote.
One thing that we are always told is to turn of devices at the plug rather than leaving them on standby. Arch Linux. Pi MusicBox and many more. You have probably dreamed of enhancing the audio and taking your setup to the next level. It works plug-and- play out of the box with the latest Raspberry Pi irmwares. What does this have to do with the Raspberry Pi? Well you also get an add- on board to enable you to control the sockets via software on the Raspberry Pi.
I2S is a communications protocol designed speciically for audio devices and has enabled a number of companies like HiFiBerry and IQaudIO to create high quality audio add-ons. If you are serious about your audio quality and want a high quality. There are a number of ways to back up a Pi. Desktop and other directories can be found.
The SD card is still susceptible to problems. The methods can be broken down into two main categories: On Linux and Mac. Find the SD card reader on your PC and slot it in. The former involves having copies of iles elsewhere. Turn of your Pi. Important files To save important iles. This is where the Documents. All you need to do is select the iles you want to copy and move them to a secure directory on your PC or a connected external hard drive. On Windows.
If your Pi breaks. Windows Fig 3: Win32 Disk Imager makes backing up the entire OS easy. Make sure the SD card is plugged in and enter: Cloud storage services make backing up files easy and secure. Now press Read and it will create the backup ile. Once installed. To copy it using dd. Back up your Pi Projects If you want to keep the iles on another computer.
This is done in the terminal emulator or command line. Download it from here to install it: The SD card will have 2. Cloning Fig 1: Storing your cloned image is a little more diicult than your important iles — the size of the image being in the gigabytes means it will ill up a lot of cloud-storage services. Keeping them on an external hard drive is a good idea.
For Macs and Linux. If you have the space. Choose a name for the backup ile and select the SD card from the list of devices. The process will take some time.
The command line text editor nano is deinitely one of the best command line editors for tools for the job. Text editors are very basic tools. Writing Create plain text files in the command line. It will ask if There are other ways to move around file such as a list. Same before making a decision. Once highlighted. This will open a blank new file. To open them in nano.
Entering the search term will begin looking through the functions such as this are done using document. Whatever you name it. Opening files Insert from file Extra help 03 To edit already existing files.
How the which just requires a Y to confirm. While you cannot use your mouse to navigate around the file in nano. To cancel cursor to the start of the line. For a full list of commands. All shortcuts and line. You static IP address. This way. In our case. To set up a enter the IP address that you want command prompt in the terminal. In real-world terms.
This used to be a bit annoying under older Raspbian versions. If you view only option. In the editor. Do this by typing the following commands into the terminal. Now we need to make sure it loads. To configure the Pi to do exit 1 this.
This really is just! Enter the following commands. SSH stands for Secure Shell and is a cryptographic network protocol which is designed to ensure secure data communication via the command line. If you want to take a more convenient and secure approach to accessing your Raspberry Pi from another computer. To discover this.
Use the ifconfig command in the several lines of results. When you press Enter. If you just want to connect to it remotely. Never type another IP address Of course. To set it up on your Pi all you need to do is open a terminal and type: The IP address itself is a group of four numbers separated by full stops. All you need is a small piece of software which efectively lets you discover hosts and services on your local network by name instead of IP address Fig 2.
With this information in hand. Try looking through your iles or using nano www. It sounds too good to be true. The other two with the whole world.
Do you want to bring your creative ideas to life without The website for Scratch. Scratch community website via the buttons on the left.
From the list of large project save and share features. Scratch studio projects 01 Located at the top of the Studio are three quick-access icons and the main menu Fig 2. The Scratch Studio is a complete development environment.
With Scratch you can scratch. Scratch 1. Then select the Scratch projects. To begin. Each panel has a speciic role in the app-construction process and its own speciic set of features and tools. Rather interestingly. The two left-hand buttons increase or decrease the size of the Staging Area panel.
We can set the view mode with the three buttons located just above the green flag. Program with Scratch Projects Fig 3: Click on the green flag to bring the aquarium to life. Fig 5: The red circle icon stops the action. Now spend a little time studying the Aquarium animation. Exit presentation mode with the curly arrow button at the top left. The first button opens up a blank canvas in the Paint Editor. The three buttons across the top of this area offer various ways to create a The stage is constructed from new sprite.
You can also pre-installed image collection. Scratch Studio. A smaller Staging Area means the central area of the Studio increases in relative size compared.
The right-hand button is the Presentation Mode which displays the stage in full-screen mode see Fig 5. The graphical elements called sprites. The third will select a random image from the and other creatures. New costumes can be painted. A rectangular reporter will contain a text string. They fit into specific shaped edit. As you can probably tell. Blocks come Situated in the centre of the Studio is the Edit Panel. A hat-style block will start block the Sprite Collection area.
Jellyfish Sprite Costumes — The jellyfish sprite has two different costumes script in the Edit Panel. The sound tab While the rounded end reporters allows us to add audio to our project. The classic hat block is the indication of its current stage coordinates and direction.
We select a block group using the eight buttons located at the top of the Block Palette panel. The panel in three basic styles. The Scratch block collection is divided into groups. Each costume has buttons to values. They interconnect with other blocks via their top-edge notches and bottom-edge bumps. Each sprite can have one or more costumes. The top button will rotate there are numerous other hat blocks. These groups are colour coded.
Stack blocks are the core script building elements. The script tab is where block sensor event from the some GPIO scripts are created. A large block collection means Scratch can script. For this. The second inner block simply pauses execution for a number of seconds.
This forever loop block blocks to use. More importantly. Block script walkthrough Fig 2: In one way this is great news. Program with Scratch Projects Did you know… There is more than one option available to start your scripts beyond the standard Green Flag block.
Scratch coder. Then be used in a vast range of software projects. Fig 3: Block Style Examples — the Scratch blocks come in a number of Fig 4: The blocks inside this loop appropriate. The activity. You get and is still popular today. It also different colour to the head. Name when it needs to grow grows in size. Paintbrush icon to paint the Snake sprite. In the Paint Editor. You control the head of the snake and must avoid a collision with either Snake is a very popular the body of the snake or the edge of the stage.
By following this tutorial you will learn to create your own simple sprite graphics. There are also bonus sprites to eat for extra points. Egg sprite The Egg sprite appears randomly on the screen and lets other sprites know when it has been eaten touched by the snake tongue Snake sprite The Snake sprite moves the head around the stage and draws the body behind it.
Score and Speed. In the can also react. The Speed sets difficulty. We have a collision if the red to play a Game Over sound. Only have the Score variable checked so it appears on the stage.
Configure them as shown so that the up arrow changes the direction to commands from the Motion palette to move the snake to the centre of the stage and point left at the beginning 08 When a collision has been detected. Click the of each game. Make Snake variables 04 Click on the Variables palette. Respond to arrow keys Draw Snake body 03 Drag four when key pressed commands from the Control palette. We want to start each game with an head is always touching the body or With the Snake sprite selected.
We need commands from the Variables palette. Make two variables. Make a list called Next Direction which is visible to all sprites. The pen is up until the new event to the other sprites so they green flag above the stage to test this.
You should also use Handle Game Over commands from the Motion palette. Move Direction list for the tail to read. Speed steps. Handle events Try out the snake 13 The Tail needs to listen for two new events which you create Try out the tail 10 You can now try out your Snake sprite. It will draw its body. The pen is down so it will variable is used to determine when 0 — this makes the body grow longer.
But the tail will because we need the tail to erase it. Draw 14 When the green flag is clicked to start the game. Grow is set to 1 so the snake gets a short body. If Grow is 1 it should pause and reset Grow to direction. The Speed variable the snake body needs to grow and Use the first value from Next Direction determines how many steps to move. Initialise the tail Paint the tail 11 Click the New Sprite: Paintbrush icon to paint the Tail sprite.
It will move around the screen in response to pressing as you need them.
How to set up your Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+
Projects Create a Snake clone in Scratch Handle movement Make a Grow variable Grow and move 09 Now handle the typical case where there is no collision and the snake must move in its current 12 Make a Grow variable which is for this sprite only — no other sprites need access to it.
Name this sprite Tail. When it receives an Egg Eaten event from one of the Egg sprites. When the Egg senses that it has been eaten. Add Egg scripts 19 Copy the Egg script so that the Egg appears randomly at the start of the game. You can choose the shape and sound for the Bonus. Make sure you change snake eats an egg. The Bad Egg will get bigger its score.
This sound will play when the 22 Create the Bonus sprite in a similar way. Paintbrush icon to paint a new sprite. Or you can choose a different sound if you like. When the Game Over event is received. Its scripts are similar to the Egg ones so you could drag one of those to the Bonus sprite and work from that. Name the sprite Egg.
Start the LXDE desktop environment using the command startx. With these techniques you can make all manner of fun and engaging projects. Install the required software packages 01 Log in to the Raspbian system with the username Pi and the password raspberry. ScratchGPIO was created by simplesi cymplecy. Power the Pi back on. The LED We can see this in action by the legs around and then try again. The resistor is used to limit the amount of current that can flow to the LED.
If you click the sprite again. The first thing we on the top row of pins. This circuit is a little bit more complicated than the LED one we Let there be light! GPIO 17 is the sixth pin from the right. Now connect the power to your Pi. This is two pins the equality statement. Enter 0 on the right. We can turn the LED on by need to do is connect 3.
If you push the button. Then on the same Then go to the sensing section and export track. Go to the control when the button is pressed. Setting the value to 0 turns the Then we need to connect a 10Kohm and inside that an if else statement. Then click the sprite. Get your breadboard. Go to the control section and add when green exporting the GPIO pin. Get interactive with Scratch Projects Connect the breadboard to your Pi 02 Power off your Pi and disconnect the power cable.
Connect one of the from Scratch When the button is not pressed. Then put the negative terminal Control the LED connected to the same negative rails of the LED into the negative rail of that ground is connected to. LED back off: An introduction into using an external output. Or maybe you have used a programmable microcontroller such as Arduino in the past.
Once everything is connected up. Output pins.
Place the female end onto the Pi. Switch the power on. This is all great fun. These enable electronic hardware such as buzzers. The pinouts. One route to go down is to ind interesting uses for one of the many desktop OSs available for the little computer. This tutorial will assume no prior knowledge of electronics or programming. Over the next few steps continues until you get to pin 26 at and challenging.
Pin 6 is the breadboard. To the right of pin 1 other tasks that you need to do as it in front of you with the USB ports is pin 3.
Index of /~prophet/raspberrypi/
This is the main pin we will be using in this guide to provide power to our 06 Okay. Other ground pins are 9. This pattern your projects become more complex on the right. You should always ensure important for later on. Pins 2 and 4 are 5V. These are used for your Pi in a case. If you have 03 If you take a look at the top left of the board you will see a small white label.
Pi revision 1 or 2? Note the slightly bent same functionality. Make sure your towards the end of Here we have a ground. Pi is unplugged from the mains supply. You can use a little higher or to the start of each command.
Place one end next to the ground wire on the breadboard. Power it up 16 Create a new Python script.
This will give us all the files in a 09 Next we need to add our resistor. This will sit next to tar zxf Rpi. Set up a new Raspbian installation a guide to this is found on page You should see the LED light up. We need 08 Place the female end of the wire into pin number 6 ground and the other end into the root access to control the LEDs.
If not. Before starting. Now get another wire ready. This now completes the circuit and we are ready Import the library in a script to test out our little task. From within your terminal window. ChangeDutyCycle dc will save confusion later on. This method is the 22 Then we add in another try-except block. BOARD as it should be.
ChangeDutyCycle dc time. PWM If all goes well. OUT Just go back through the import RPi. You then pass in the pin number.
OUT sudo python gpio. BOARD p. This will work using these conventions frequently. This is simplified p. As we want to use an LED. Your Raspberry Pi is plugged in. Raspbian is installed on the SD card and you are right in the middle of setting up a wireless print server or building a robot to collect your mail from your doormat. But are you truly getting the most from your little computer?
Various tools and techniques can be employed to improve performance, from choosing the right hardware to overclocking the CPU. Use these tips and tricks to reconigure your Pi setup and optimise software and hardware to ensure you get the best performance. A low capacity SD card with poor error correction, is going to be slower than a larger card with greater resilience, so you need to find the right balance for your project and shop wisely. Expand the Raspbian partition. With raspi-config running, use.
Then wait briefly while the partition is resized. In the command line, enter: Other directories that can be moved to RAM include: Shut down, remove the card and insert it into your desktop no power issues as it will have its own power supply. As ever, your on it? Instead of using the SD card as computer.
In the command line, run: This can give SD card. Copying takes minutes. You can then start your Raspberry Pi. Save and exit. Four further options are available: Launch from the command line and arrow down to the overclock option. Using your preferred partition manager Disk Utility is in most distros. It is possible to overclock the computer. Avoid by installing gdisk: Eben Upton. Then resize the root sinks for the Pi are filesystem on the USB device.
In raspi-config. Reopen cmdline. Ethernet controller and power regulator can be downloadd online. It just needs the right kind of software. A Raspberry Pi 3 or the older model 2 is powerful enough to run mumudvb, oscam and the transcoding software at the same time, serving and descrambling a whole transponder. But transcoding is limited to one channel at a time. If you are running mumudvb on another device, it may still be useful to add a Raspberry Pi to your network just for transcoding as it runs on low power Note: in all following examples I run mumudvb on the same Raspberry Pi localhost , using unicast and port My transcoding solution for the Raspberry Pi uses gstreamer Configuring and issuing such command lines would be a real pain and so I have written another application, rtranscode, which manages the use of http-launch in a much simpler way.
To find the arguments, rtranscode contains a stream analyzer. There are options to set the image size, video bitrate, audio bitrate and more. Here is a more complete example.However you may need an adapter in some casesThe Raspberry Pi is powered using a micro USB cable, much like a lot of modern Android phones.
The irst step here is to not panic: Press Enter can click on the network icon in order Linux. Click on the icon in the bottom command is again used instead of left.
This creates a window where a command can be written in the same way that we launched the desktop.
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